Sleep & the employer
Have you considered the impact of sleep on the health and wellbeing of your team?
Most people who don’t get enough sleep, don’t recognise the impact it has on their cognitive and mental health.
Workplace wellness schemes cover many elements from health insurance to gym membership to employee assistance schemes. Sleep is only just being recognised as a critical factor in health in wider society as well as at work.
PWC research3 states that workplace wellness schemes make commercial sense due to the following factors:
- An increase in workforce age and change in its composition leading to employee expectation of wellness programmes and work-life balance initiatives
- Rising costs of chronic disease and ill-health
- External governmental and business pressures such as corporate social responsibility and competition.
As an Employer, are you aware of the impact of sleep on your business?
There are more than 80 recognised sleep disorders, varying from mild to life-threatening. Common sleep disorders are insomnia, sleep apnoea, restless leg syndrome and narcolepsy.
OSA is a condition where a person stops breathing temporarily during their sleep, sometimes several hundred times a night, due to their throat collapsing and becoming blocked. The brain needs to arouse from sleep to start the person breathing again, and this causes a partial awakening, which the person may or may not be aware of. This disruption to sleep can lead to a person feeling very sleepy during the day, and is linked with other serious health consequences.7
Apnoeas can cause sleep disruption and poor-quality sleep, leading to daytime sleepiness with reduced productivity8 and an increased risk of serious road traffic incidents and other accidents.
Research has also shown that the impact of untreated OSA is similar in magnitude to that of alcohol consumption9.
If left untreated, OSA can be a risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular problems or diabetes. There is also a link between OSA and obesity.
among 30-49 year old men
among 50-70 year old men
among 30-49 year old women
among 50-70 year old women
Unfortunately many adults who are obese also have sedentary lifestyles, a factor that further increases their risk for developing OSAS.
We all know how the loss of just one night’s good sleep may result in headache, mood changes, reduced concentration and increased appetite. Imagine the cumulative effect of that over months and years.
Why don’t my employees get treated themselves? (Why is it my responsibility?)
It’s a good question… Sleepy individuals don’t go to their doctor for a number of reasons that may include:
- Lack of symptom awareness (or putting them down to something else).
- Failure to recognise that a condition has worsened over time – similar to how brakes gradually degrade on a car and you only notice when they fail!
- Don’t want to admit that they’re ill – pride/ego/fear of showing weakness.
- Fear of immediate lack of income due to delays in getting diagnosed and treated.
- Concerns over data confidentiality and longer-term career impact.
- Guilt – as if they’ve done something wrong.
- Responsibility for family such that they ‘cannot’ be ill.
- Fear of discrimination.
Furthermore, the British Lung Foundation found that 9% of patients were initially told by their GP to either lose weight or that nothing needed to be done about it, and over 20% had to see their GP three or more times with symptoms before they were referred for a sleep study.13
We know that we should eat 5 fruits and vegetables a day and do more exercise, but not all of us do. We also have laws to prevent and protect us from accidents, yet for some people the fear of the impact of a diagnosis on their life, stops them from coming forward.
Researchers have estimated that sleep-related fatigue costs US businesses $150 billion a year in absenteeism, workplace accidents and other lost productivity.14
The impetus to support individuals to get help or seek treatment will often fall on the employer. Reasons include;
- the commercial and ethical benefits of having a healthy, productive, alert workforce
- the impact on becoming an employer of choice
- removing the risk of HSE or civil prosecution and
- removing the risk of an incident to the employer brand reputation.
So what can my company do?
Some individuals will recognise their sleepiness and get forwarded for testing and treatment via their GP.
However, the current model, as described above, clearly doesn’t work for all. Some individuals either don’t or won’t come forward for testing, or if they do, they might be turned away by their GP, and according to the British Lung Foundation, 85% of the UK population don’t have access to the most appropriate treatment.15
The BLF OSA Next Steps (2013) report stated that;
“action is needed to support screening for signs and symptoms”
and the September 2015, The NHS Atlas of Variation report asked NHS commissioners and service providers to:
“review referral and delivery models for sleep services… [and] review models for initial diagnostic testing and triage approaches to referral management.”16
Snorer.com provides a new channel for potential sleep
I was wrongly diagnosed with asthma by my GP.(anon)
I told my GP I felt weak and depressed. It took five years to be referred to a sleep clinic.(anon)
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1. Harvard Business Review; Sleep Deficit: The Performance Killer, Bronwyn Fryer, 2006. https://hbr.org/2006/10/sleep-deficit-the-performance-killer [accessed 26 July 2015]↩
2. Barry Krakow MD, cited by Camille Peri in “What lack of sleep does to your mind” published by WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/excessive-sleepiness-10/emotions-cognitive [accessed 26 July 2015]↩
3. Building the case for wellness. Dept for Work and Pensions. Gov.uk website. First published 8 July 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/209547/hwwb-dwp-wellness-report-public.pdf [15 Oct 2014]↩
4. The NHS Atlas of Variation in Healthcare, Public Health England, September 2015. Problems of the Respiratory System, Map 19: Rate of sleep studies undertaken per weighted population by CCG. pP81. ↩
5. Sivertsen, B., Björnsdóttir, E., Øverland, S., Bjorvatn, B. and Salo, P. (2013), The joint contribution of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea on sickness absence. Journal of Sleep Research, 22: 223–230. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01055.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01055.x/abstract. Research conducted in Norway in 2012 with 6,892 people aged 40-45 years. [Accessed 24th March 2014]↩
6. Berger M(1), Varvarigou V, Rielly A, Czeisler CA, Malhotra A, Kales SN. Employer-mandated sleep apnea screening and diagnosis in commercial drivers. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3415601/ [accessed 4th Sept 2014] ↩
7. British Lung Foundation, OSA Next Steps – why obstructive sleep apnoea must be a health priority. 2013, p4, https://www.blf.org.uk/sites/default/files/OHE-OSA-health-economics-report—FINAL—v2.pdf ↩
8. Sivertsen, B., Björnsdóttir, E., Øverland, S., Bjorvatn, B. and Salo, P. (2013), The joint contribution of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea on sickness absence. Journal of Sleep Research, 22: 223–230. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01055.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01055.x/abstract. Research conducted in Norway in 2012 with 6,892 people aged 40-45 years. [Accessed 24th March 2014]↩
9. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research; Colten HR, Altevogt BM, editors. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006. 4, Functional and Economic Impact of Sleep Loss and Sleep-Related Disorders. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19958/ [Accessed 24th March 2014]↩
10. Young T, Evans L, Finn L, Palta M. Estimation of the clinically diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middle-aged men and women. Sleep. 1997b;20(9):705–706. [PubMed]↩
11. Paul E. Peppard, Terry Young, Jodi H. Barnet, Mari Palta, Erika W. Hagen, and Khin Mae Hla. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2013) 177 (9): 1006-1014 first published online April 14, 2013 doi:10.1093/aje/kws342. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/177/9/1006 [Accessed 24 March 2014]↩
12. Harvard Business Review; Sleep Deficit: The Performance Killer, Bronwyn Fryer, 2006. https://hbr.org/2006/10/sleep-deficit-the-performance-killer [accessed 26 July 2015]↩
13. British Lung Foundation, Obstructive sleep apnoea patient experience survey; J Harris, R Reeves, M Allen, I Jarrold, J Horne; 2013↩
14. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research; Colten HR, Altevogt BM, editors. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006. 4, Functional and Economic Impact of Sleep Loss and Sleep-Related Disorders. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19958/ [Accessed 24th March 2014]↩
15. Juan Carlos Rejón-Parrilla, Martina Garau, Jon Sussex. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Health Economics Report. British Lung Foundation, September 2014. https://www.blf.org.uk/Page/OSA-UK-health-economics-report. ↩
16. The NHS Atlas of Variation in Healthcare, Public Health England, September 2015. Problems of the Respiratory System, Map 19: Rate of sleep studies undertaken per weighted population by CCG. pP81. ↩
Created by Emma Easton | Page last updated 1st Feb 2017 | ASAP™ is CE marked standalone, software as a medical device (SaMD).
ASAP™ manufacturer is Snorer.com Ltd. Sleep House, 94 High Street, Sutton Courtenay, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 4AX. UK.